The motion of the beating heart is complex and creates artifacts in SPECT and x-ray CT images. Phantoms such as the Jaszczak Dynamic Cardiac Phantom are used to simulate cardiac motion for evaluation of acquisition and data processing protocols used for cardiac imaging. Two concentric elastic membranes filled with water are connected to tubing and pump apparatus for creating fluid flow in and out of the inner volume to simulate motion of the heart. In the present report, the movement of two concentric balloons is solved numerically in order to create a computer simulation of the motion of the moving membranes in the Jaszczak Dynamic Cardiac Phantom. A system of differential equations, based on the physical properties, determine the motion. Two methods are tested for solving the system of differential equations. The results of both methods are similar providing a final shape that does not converge to a trivial circular profile. Finally, a tomographic imaging simulation is performed by acquiring static projections of the moving shape and reconstructing the result to observe motion artifacts. Two cases are taken into account: in one case each projection angle is sampled for a short time interval and the other case is sampled for a longer time interval. The longer sampling acquisition shows a clear improvement in decreasing the tomographic streaking artifacts.
KeywordsTomography Artifacts, Modeling.
ReferenceDamien Rohmer, Arkadiusz Sitek and Grant T. Gullberg.
Simulation of the Beating Heart Based on Physically Modeling a Deformable balloon.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Technical Report LBNL-60664.